A crime which either targets or uses a computer and its network against individuals with the intent to harm the victim’s reputation, cause physical or mental harm, or loss to the victim directly or indirectly, through the use of modern telecommunication networks such as the internet (networks including chat room, email, notice boards, and groups) and mobile phones (Bluetooth/SMS/MMS).


  1. The Melissa virus’s eradication
  2. Cyber-attack on NASA
  3. The cuber attack in Estonia in 2007 Sony’s PlayStation network has been subjected to four cyber attacks
  4. The cyber-attack against yahoo in 2014
  5. Attack on Ukraine’s electricity grid
  6. Wannacry Ransomware cyber assaults in 2017


The India Telegraph Act was passed in 1885, and the Information Technology Act was passed in 2000. The Information Technology Act of 2000 aims to legalize e-commerce and e-governance and make it easier to develop as a viable alternative to paper-based traditional methods. The act has a function–equivalent approach, which means that paper-based requirements like documents, records and signatures are replaced by their electronic counterparts.

National Cyber Security Policy, 2013 was established to create a safe and secure cyberspace using modern telecommunication networks. Cyber-crime causes mental harm or loss to the victim directly or indirectly. The National Critical Information Infrastructure Protection Center is open 24 hour a day, seven day a week (NCIIPC).


Cyber-criminals are always looking for a quick way to generate large sums of money. They hack sensitive information from wealthy people or wealthy companies such as banks, casinos, and financial firms where large sums of money are exchanged on a daily basis. It is tough to apprehend such crooks. As a result, the number of cyber-crimes increases globally. Because computers are susceptible, regulations must be enacted to protect and secure them from cyber-criminals. The following are some of the reasons why computers are vulnerable:

  1. Youngster’s passion
  2. The urge to make quick money
  3. The ability to store data in a relatively small amount of space
  4. Confidential information is available on the internet
  5. Indulgence
  6. Insufficient evidence


1. Hacking:-

In simple words, hacking is defined as can unauthorized intrusion system and network.

2. Pornography in children:-

The internet is often utilized for child sexual exploitation.

3. Stalking on the internet:-

This word refers to stalking another person through the internet, email, or another electronic communication device.

4. Refusal to provide service:-

This is a set of technology‑driven cyber instruction in which the influence foods or inhibits the user’s access to the internet and the services offered there.

5. Malicious software (malware) distribution:-

Malware is defined as software that is meant to commit an undesirable illegal act through a computer network.

a) Virus:

A virus is a computer programmer that can infect other programs by altering them to include a copy of it.

b) Worm:

Worms can also be spread via computer. Rather than invading legislate files, worms are harmful programs that copy themselves from system to system.

c) Trojans:

Trojans are a type of malware that does things that the user does not expect.

d) Hoax:

A hoax is an email that warns the user of a system that is causing computer harm.

6. Spyware:-

Spyware infiltrates a computer and, as the name suggests, monitors a user’s activities without their permission.

7. Phishing:-

Phishers trick visitor into visiting a fake website by sending them an authentic‑looking email.

8. Data interception:

E‑Mail hijacking, or network interference by a third party, may be a precursor to another sort of computer crime, such as data manipulation.


Cyber-crime is the most common type of crime in today’s world, and it takes place via the internet. The victim suffers a significant loss as a result of it. Some steps should be made by us to prevent such crimes. Vigilant behavior and adherence to safety regulations are merely two of the many tools that can help to lower the incidence of cyber-crime. Being alert is the best way to defend oneself. Not every cyber-criminal is a “hacker”. In cyberspace, there is an entirely different universe. Ensure that your data is sent in a secure manner. Stay safe and secure. It is important to educate individuals about their rights and responsibilities.


Masters in Social Work, 1st Division

N.C. Autonomous College, Jajpur