What is water resources management?
Water Resources Management (WRM) is the process of planning, developing, and managing water resources across all water applications, in terms of both quantity and quality. Water management is supported and guided by institutions, infrastructure, incentives, and information systems.
What is the importance of water resources management?
Water management is critical because it influences future irrigation expectations. Water management is the administration of water resources in accordance with established policies and regulations. Water, once an abundant natural resource, is becoming a more valuable commodity due to droughts and overuse.
The practice of planning, producing, distributing, and managing the most efficient use of water resources is known as water resource management. Water cycle management is a subset of it. Water resource management planning should, in theory, take into account all competing needs for water and attempt to allocate water in an equitable manner to meet all uses and demands. In practice, as with other aspects of resource management, this is rarely attainable. Water is a necessary component of all life on the earth. Only 3% of the Earth’s water resources are fresh, and two-thirds of the freshwater is locked up in ice caps and glaciers. A fifth of the remaining 1% is in distant, inaccessible locations, where considerable seasonal rainfall in monsoonal deluges and floods cannot be accessed, it is simple to use. At the moment, mankind uses just around 0.08 percent of the world’s fresh water to meet ever-increasing demands for sanitation, drinking, industry, recreation, and agriculture.
Types of water resources management methods:
As a result, water management is a pressing issue. It involves the long-term management of water resources for future generations. It entails the action of maximizing the use of water resources through planning, development, distribution, and management. Water management preservation can be accomplished in a variety of ways, some of which are described below.
- Rainwater Harvesting
- Groundwater recharge
- Greywater Systems
- Recycling wastewater/ STP system
Rainwater Harvesting System:
Rainwater harvesting is the gathering of rainwater from a surface that receives rainfall directly. Rooftop rainwater harvesting or artificial groundwater recharging are two types of rainwater harvesting systems. Rooftop rainwater collection is popular because it can be kept in a tank or transferred to a system for artificial recharge.
Water travels downward from surface water to groundwater in a hydrologic process known as groundwater recharge. Natural and artificial recharge are both possible. Groundwater is refilled naturally by rain and snow melt, as well as to a lesser extent by surface water such as rivers and lakes, in natural groundwater recharge. Artificial groundwater recharge has proven to be an effective way for purifying surface water and improving water management. The penetration of surface water into shallow aquifers to enhance the quantity of groundwater is known as artificial groundwater recharge. In the long run, the volume-rate extracted from an aquifer should be less than or equal to the volume-rate replenished.
Greywater is waste from plumbing systems other than toilets, such as hand basins, washing machines, showers, and bathtubs. Because of the lower levels of pollutants, most greywater is easier to treat and recycle than black water. The treatment method and standard in a Greywater system will differ depending on the system’s size. To minimize confusion with the mains drinking water, the Greywater system’s pipes and supply points must be clearly identified. Greywater systems can save you anywhere from 35 to 40% on your annual water cost.
Recycling wastewater/ STP system:
Recycling wastewater involves Greywater system and blackwater system. Greywater is easier to treat and recycle than blackwater. Blackwater contains bacteria that can cause disease. That’s why communities build wastewater treatment plants and enforce laws against the release of raw sewage into the environment. Sewage Treatment plant system are used to recycle blackwater. In recent years, there has been growing interest in waste-water reuse as a major component of water demand management.
How Can We Conserve Water?
Water is one of the most basic need for all living things, and we can’t conceive life without it. It is a natural resource and the most important component of our world. Water is the universal solvent and is essential for the survival of all types of life on the planet. It’s commonly utilized for a variety of reasons, including laundry, bathing, cleaning, cooking, drinking, and other industrial and residential applications.
Water is a colourless, odourless substance that is necessary for all living things to survive. Wells, rivers, ponds, lakes, seas, large dams, and streams are all examples of water sources. As we all know, nearly 70 to 80 percent of the Earth’s surface is covered by water, among which only 1-2 per cent water is pure and suitable for human use.
What is Conservation of Water?
Water conservation primarily refers to the protection, preservation, and management of water and its resources. It is a system that was put in place to manage freshwater, decrease waste, and safeguard water and its resources in order to lessen and avoid shortages. As a result, we should all step up to raise water conservation awareness among our own friends, family, neighbours, society, and so on. Water conservation is critical because it protects life on Earth.
Why do we need to Conserve Water?
Conserving water benefits us by allowing us to use more water for longer periods of time. It is now required in all places since natural resources are depleting in tandem with increasing population and demand.
Water conservation can be accomplished in a variety of ways. Here are several critical and simple strategies to conserve water. Conserving water helps us by supplying more amount of water for keeping the tap closed when not in use.
- Check for the openings or leaks in water distribution pipes.
- Make sure to use collected rainwater for gardening or washing purpose.
- Always have a measure of how many buckets of water is wasted in a day and try to reduce.
- Do not run more water than necessary while washing and cleaning clothes, utensils, etc.
- Do not prolong your bathing. Go for a quick shower rather than wasting buckets of water
- Rainwater harvesting is one of the best method used for conserving water. There are different methods used to preserve rainwater instead of getting it wasted.
Farmers can contribute to this water saving strategy by installing drip irrigation on their crops. This is a form of irrigation method that all farmers can use to conserve water. Water is delivered directly to the plant roots in this technique, preventing evaporation and wasting water.
Management of Water Resources:
- Canals, tanks, yeris, etc. must be desilted regularly during the summer months.
- People should be encouraged to revive the ancient practice of protecting trees around tanks. Major rivers were sanctified and groves were established around villages and on the river banks.
On a war basis, reforestation of barren, hilly slopes should be carried out. Drought tolerance is higher in trees than in crops. They control dust, refill streams, offer shade for livestock and people, and supply animals with fodder. They can be used in a variety of ways. Deforestation without compensatory afforestation is a dangerous and short-sighted method to addressing immediate demands.
Ponds and Tanks man
- Creation of small reservoirs and percolation tanks to hold run-off water must be implemented and maintained well.
- Agronomic practices like off-season tillage (prior to pre-monsoon showers) conserve soil moisture. Moisture penetration to a depth of 90 cm. is achieved if the land is ploughed to a depth of 30 cm. Other practices like early sowing of seeds, moderate use of fertilisers, weeding, pest and disease control and timely harvesting increase the yield inspite of limited moisture in the soil.
- Terrace cultivation of hilly slopes prevents water run-off.
- Contour ploughing and planting of grasses and trees check run-off water and increase the soil’s capacity to retain moisture.
- Green manuring (incorporation of fresh green leaves into the soil) and crop-rotation (cultivating different crops in rotation depending upon the soil and climate, e.g. cereals followed by legumes) conserve soil moisture.
- Mulching the soil with organic residue conserves soil moisture.
- The use of sprinkler irrigation for closely-spaced crops like millet, pulses, groundnuts, etc., conserves 30 to 40% of the surface water.
- Drip irrigation is most suited for closely-spaced row crops like vegetables, cotton, sugarcane. The efficiency of this system is around 25 to 30% in conserving soil moisture. The cheapest and easiest form of drip irrigation is to drill one to three holes in a mud pot and bury it partially in the soil next to the plant. The water in the pot drips slowly, ensuring that the soil is continuously moist and the plant gets a constant supply of water.
- Harvesting rain water and storing it in small ponds ensures water supply during summer.
- Deep trenches can be dug adjacent to bunds to collect run off water and soil.
- All these practices are useful only if utilised properly
Water management solutions should be implemented wisely, bearing in mind the urgency of the task. If at all possible, planning committees should consider the demands of all water users. It’s critical to exercise better control over the usage of nonrenewable subterranean water. Long-standing methods like rainwater collection are being refined and complemented by emerging technologies like artificial recharge, desalination, and re-use. Water conservation decreases the wear and strain on significant resources like water and wastewater treatment plants, as well as the distribution systems that distribute water to the general public. Using less water allows us to be more adaptable during times of water scarcity.
BY- ANUPAMA SAHOO
MBA in Rural Management, 1st Division
Utkal University, Chandikhole Campus