Domestic abuse, also called “domestic violence”, is an obstacle in our society. Women are generally the ones who face this problem. In a conservative family mostly it is faced by the wives and also those who are in a premarital relationship. Abusers are not only the husbands. Relationship abuse, or domestic abuse, can also be perpetuated by parents, in-laws and other family members. Now, more than ever, domestic abuse is on the rise globally. Abuse and violence can be physical, economic, emotional, sexual or psychological action, or threats of actions that influence another person on whom the abuse/violence in carried out.
1. Physical Violence:-
Physical violence is when the use of physical force injures the person it is intended towards. Such actions may include hitting, choking, strangulation, pushing and other forms of abuse that can intimidate the victim. The abuser may even force the victim to take action against another family member.
2. Economic Abuse:-
When an abuser takes control of, or limits, access to shared or individual assets or stops the current or future earning potential of the victim as a presentation of power and control, is called economic abuse. Also, when the abuser separates the victim financially and creates a forced dependency on the abuser or other family members of the abuser, it can also be called economic abuse.
3. Emotional Abuse:-
What are the signs of emotional abuse from verbally abusive husbands? Signs of emotional abuser (also called mental abuse or psychological abuse) includes disrespectful behavior, name-calling, put-downs, undermining the self-respect or self-worth of another person, blaming, gaslighting and playing the victim card.
4. SEXUAL VIOLENCE:-
Sexual violence refers to making or attempting to make any sexual contact, or sexual behavior without consent of the other person. It includes, attacks on sexual parts of the body, marital rape, forcing sex after physical violence has occurred or treating one in a sexually demeaning manner. Sexual violence can include:-
- Pressuring or forcing someone to do something sexual in nature.
- Unwanted sexing – Sending sexually explicit texts and images to someone without their consent.
- Forcing sex without protection against pregnancy or sexually transmitted diseases.
WHAT ARE THE CAUSES OF DOMESTIC VIOLENCE:-
Causes of domestic violence are a combination of various cultural, religious & social factors that leads to domestic violence against women.
Cultural Factors, such as one woman from one culture, and her in laws from another culture, may lead to contradiction. They don’t understand each other’s feelings and emotions.
Religion can often help people make themselves better & help the lives of others. On the contrary however, it can also do the opposite, causing people to be violent. Religion often becomes the root cause for acts of violence including suicide, terrorism & martyrdom.
Dowry is a form of social factor. The act passed in 1991 states that the demand of dowry either before marriage, during marriage, or after the marriage is an offense. Dowry is the most important cause of domestic violence. Because in-laws illegally demand dowry, the women suffer many problems in their family.
DOMESTIC VIOLENCE FACTS:-
- We should not think that domestic violence is only against women. Domestic violence can also be against men.
- The job of civilized society is that we should give importance to all forms of violence and not to any particular person whether he is a man or a woman, we should only take the side of truth.
- According to domestic abuse statistics, the National Family Health Survey (NHFS-4) conducted by the Union Health Ministry found that every third woman, since the age of 15, has faced domestic violence in India. Most of the time, the perpetrators of the violence have been the husbands.
- The survey also found that 31% of married women have experienced physical, sexual or emotional violence by their spouses; the most common type of spousal violence is physical violence (27%), followed by emotional violence (13%).
CONSEQUENCE & EFFECTS OF DOMESTIC VIOLENCE:-
- Domestic & family violence has a significant impact on the health and well being of survivors.
- The effects of domestic violence go beyond physical marks & injuries. The emotional and mental consequences can be endured long after the abusive relationship has ended.
- Every form of domestic & family violence can have considerable immediate and long lasting impacts. Physical, psychological, sexual, financial and all other types of abuse can be just as damaging to the health & well being of survivors and witnesses.
- Impacts of domestic violence vary widely from person to person. Some of the common effects of domestic violence include depression, anxiety, post traumatic stress disorder & suicide.
ACT & LAW CAME INTO FORCE FOR THE DOMESTIC VIOLENCE:-
- According to a recent survey 70% of women in India suffer from domestic violence.
- The Protection of Women from Domestic Violence Act (PWDVA), 2005 came into force on 26 October 2006, by the parliament of India.
- The domestic violence act was first introduced by the Indian penal code, 1863 section 498(a) where, women’s husband & the relative of the husband subjecting women to cruelty would be prosecuted.
- PWDA act defines domestic violence as emotional, psychological, physical, sexual, and financial abuse. Harassment by way of unlawful dowry demands to the woman or her relatives would also be covered under this.
In Odisha it is perceived that without a family women can’t do anything. Family does not consist only family members. It is also based on mutual respect, love and affection. But some people do not consider it. So, they always dominate others & appear powerful but actually it is not the truth. It is a very dirty mind set, so every single person of the society should take action against domestic violence.
NAME: – RashmiRekha Das